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Grey Systems: Theory and Application (GS)

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About the Journal

Grey Systems: Theory and Application (GS) is an official journal of the International Association of Grey System and Uncertain Analysis, publishing innovative research on the use of grey systems and uncertain information and analysis.

This journal is abstracted and indexed by

Science Citation Index Expanded(SCI)


Engineering Index Compendex(EI)


Aims and scope

Grey Systems: Theory and Application (GS) is devoted to the international advancement of the theory and application of grey systems and uncertainty analysis. It seeks to foster professional exchanges between scientists and practitioners who are interested in the foundations and applications of grey systems and uncertainty analysis. Through the pioneering work completed over recent years, uncertainty-based techniques such as grey systems theory, fuzzy mathematics and rough set have become powerful tools in addressing systems with uncertain information.

Articles published by the journal will explore the theory and applications of grey systems as well as contributions on hybrid approaches combining grey systems with other uncertainty theories, in order to tackle uncertain information more effectively and efficiently. The journal aims to provide state-of-the-art information and case studies on new developments and trends in grey system theory and its potential application to solve practical problems

Coverage includes, but is not limited to:

Foundations of grey systems theory and other uncertain methods

Grey sequence operators

Grey incidence analysis models

Grey clustering evaluations models

Techniques for grey system forecasting

Grey models for decision-making

Combined grey models

Hybrid grey-fuzzy or grey-rough models

Grey input-output models

Techniques for grey control

Applications of grey systems theory and uncertainty analysis

Editorial Team of The Journal of Grey System

Editor-in-Chief: Professor Sifeng Liu

Director of the Institute for Grey Systems Studies and a Distinguished Professor of Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, P. R. China


Editorial Assistant: Dr. Mingli Hu 

Associate professor of the Institute for Grey Systems Studies, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, P. R. China


Associate Editors

§ Professor Naiming Xie, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics - People's Republic of China

§ Professor Yingjie Yang, Centre for Computational Intelligence De Montfort University, UK

§ Professor Jeffrey Forrest, Mathematics Department, Slippery Rock University, USA

§ Professor Keith W. Hipel

§ University of Waterloo - Canada

§ Professor Jose L. Salmeron

§ University Pablo de Olavide - Spain

Publisher: Summer Wang

Emerald Publishing - People's Republic of China 

Author Guidelines

Submit to the journal

Please submit your article online at 

Manuscript requirements

Before you submit your manuscript, its important you read and follow the guidelines below. You will also find some useful tips in our structure your journal submission how-to guide.


Article files should be provided in Microsoft Word format.

While you are welcome to submit a PDF of the document alongside the Word file, PDFs alone are not acceptable. LaTeX files can also be used but only if an accompanying PDF document is provided. Acceptable figure file types are listed further below.

Article length / word count

Articles should be between 4500  and 6500 words in length. This includes all text, for example, the structured abstract, references, all text in tables, and figures and appendices.

Please allow 280 words for each figure or table.

Article title

A concisely worded title should be provided.

Author details

The names of all contributing authors should be added to the ScholarOne submission; please list them in the order in which youd like them to be published. Each contributing author will need their own ScholarOne author account, from which we will extract the following details:

Author email address (institutional preferred).

Author name. We will reproduce it exactly, so any middle names and/or initials they want featured must be included.

Author affiliation. This should be where they were based when the research for the paper was conducted.

In multi-authored papers, its important that ALL authors that have made a significant contribution to the paper are listed. Those who have provided support but have not contributed to the research should be featured in an acknowledgements section. You should never include people who have not contributed to the paper or who dont want to be associated with the research. Read about our research ethics for authorship.

Biographies and acknowledgements

If you want to include these items, save them in a separate Microsoft Word document and upload the file with your submission. Where they are included, a brief professional biography of not more than 100 words should be supplied for each named author.

Research funding

our article must reference all sources of external research funding in the acknowledgements section. You should describe the role of the funder or financial sponsor in the entire research process, from study design to submission.

Structured abstract

All submissions must include a structured abstract, following the format outlined below.

These four sub-headings and their accompanying explanations must always be included:





The following three sub-headings are optional and can be included, if applicable:


Research limitations/implications

Practical implications

Social implications

You can find some useful tips in our write an article abstract how-to guide.

The maximum length of your abstract should be 250 words in total, including keywords and article classification (see the sections below).


Your submission should include up to 12 appropriate and short keywords that capture the principal topics of the paper. Our Creating an SEO-friendly manuscript how to guide contains some practical guidance on choosing search-engine friendly keywords.

Please note, while we will always try to use the keywords youve suggested, the in-house editorial team may replace some of them with matching terms to ensure consistency across publications and improve your articles visibility.


All Figures/Tables should be of high quality, legible and numbered consecutively with arabic numerals. 


All references in your manuscript must be formatted using one of the recognised Harvard styles. You are welcome to use the Harvard style Emerald has adopted weve provided a detailed guide below. Want to use a different Harvard style? Thats fine, our typesetters will make any necessary changes to your manuscript if it is accepted. Please ensure you check all your citations for completeness, accuracy and consistency.

Emeralds Harvard referencing style

References to other publications in your text should be written as follows:

Single author: (Adams, 2006)

Two authors: (Adams and Brown, 2006)

Three or more authors: (Adams et al., 2006) Please note, et al' should always be written in italics.

Where a DOI is available, this should be included at the end of the reference.